Benefits of standardization
a. Narrow tables: Having more accurate tables allows tables to have less columns and lets you fit more information records per page.
b. Less indexes per table mean faster maintenance tasks such as index rebuilds.
c. Only join tables that you require.
The disadvantages of standardization
1. Smaller database: By eliminating duplicate information, you will be able to reduce the overall size of the database.
2. Best performance:
1. More tables to join: By spreading your information in multiple tables, the require to join tables.
2. Tables contain codes in lieu of real information: the information is stored repeatedly codes than meaningful information. Therefore, there is always a require to go to the lockup table for the value.
3. The information model is difficult to query: The information model is optimized for applications, not for ad hoc queries.