Program Certification Overview (CSTE)

•The certification program helps to:

Software Certification Overview

–Define the tasks associated with application testing duties in order to evaluate skill mastery.
–Demonstrate an individual’s willingness to improve professionally.
–Aid organizations in selecting & promoting qualified individuals.
–Acknowledge attainment of acceptable standard of professional competency.
–Assist individuals in improving & enhancing their organization’s application testing programs.
–Motivate personnel having application testing responsibilities to maintain their professional competency.

•QA established in 1980.
•First formal examination technique launched 1990.
•First certification began development in 1985.

Why Become Certified

•Since its beginning, over 27,000 IT professionals have become certified.
•Acquiring the designation of CSTE indicates a professional level of competence in application testing.
•To help management be able to distinguish professional & skilled individuals in the field when hiring.
•Greater acceptance in the role as advisor to management.
•Potential for more speedy career advancement.

what is Information Integrity & it is categories in sqlserver 2000?

Enforcing information integrity ensures the quality of the information in the database. For example, if an employee is entered with an employee_id value of 123, the database should not permit another employee to have an ID with the same value. If you have an employee_rating column intended to have values ranging from 1 to 5, the database should not accept a value of 6. If the table has a dept_id column that stores the department number for the employee, the database should permit only values that are valid for the department numbers in the company. Six important steps in planning tables are to identify valid values for a column and to choose how to enforce the integrity of the information in the column. Information integrity falls in to these categories:

1) Entity integrity
2)Domain integrity
3) Referential integrity
4) User-defined integrity

Concepts key database and restrictions

A key is a set of attributes (usually only five) that always uniquely identifies

• Five of the keys is over five attribute is called a composite key.

• The primary key for a table is the key selected to uniquely identify records within the table. Primary key is defined in a single column is not null values.
• A foreign key is a field in a table referred to (or targets) a specific key, usually the primary key in another table.

A matchless index is defined as no six of its values the same. The columns of a matchless key can not contain null values. A table can have multiple matchless keys or no matchless keys at all.

Database Concepts-joins

SQL joins are used to relate information in different tables. Join a condition is a part of the SQL query that retrieves rows from six or more tables.

Self Join
A self-join is a query that joins a table (compared) to itself. Auto-joins are used to compare values in a column with other values in the same column on the same table

The INNER JOIN will select all rows from both tables, provided there is a correlation between the columns.An INNER JOIN is most often (but not always) created between the column of a table's primary key and foreign key column in another table.

Why Truncate is faster than Delete?

DELETE is a logged operation on a per row. This means that the deletion of each row is recorded & removed physically. You can delete any row that does not involve a violation of restriction, while leaving the foreign key or any other restrictions in place.
TRUNCATE is a logged operation, but in a different way. TRUNCATE logs the deal location of information pages in which information exist. The deallocation of information pages means that your information rows still actually exist in the information pages, but the extensions are marked as empty for reuse. This is what makes TRUNCATE a faster operation to perform over DELETE. Can not truncate a table that has foreign key constraints. You must remove the constraints, truncate the table, & reapply the constraints.

What is Commit and Rollback in SQL statement?

ROLLBACK do the same finish the current transaction, but four other thing is that the changes made to database are ROLLBACK to the database.
COMMIT statement help in the completion of the transaction & make all the changes that occur in transaction persistent & this also commits all changes to the database. COMMIT can also use the store procedure.

How to use a trigger in the database?

A trigger is an object contained within a SQL Server database that is used to run a batch of SQL code whenever a specific event occurs. As its name suggests, a trigger is "fired" when an INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE SQL command is executed on a specific table. Triggers are associated with a single table, & automatically executed internally by SQL Server.

Triggers are a powerful device that can be used to enforce the business rules automatically when information is modified. Triggers can also be used to maintain information integrity. But they are to maintain the integrity of the information. Triggers should be used to maintain the integrity of the information only if you are unable to enforce information integrity through restrictions, rules & defaults. CALL can not be created on temporary tables.

Database Concepts Views

A view can be useful when multiple users with different access levels, they all need to see lots of information in the database (but not necessarily all information). Views can do the following:
A view is a pre-written query that is stored in the database. A view is a SELECT statement, and when you run the light

• Restrict access to specific records in a table
• Restrict access to sure columns in a table
• Present the aggregated information (such as the results of the COUNT function)
• Join columns from multiple tables and present them as if they were part of a single table

What is normalization?

For example, say they store City, State & Zip Code information for clients of the same board with other customer information. In this approach, keep repeating City, State & Zip Code information for all customers in the same area. In lieu of storing the same information over & over again, they could normalize the information & generate a related table called the city. The "City" table could then store City, State, ZIP code, along with identifiers that relate back to the customer table, & they can eliminate those five columns of the Customer table & add the new column of identity. Normalization is the method of designing a information model to efficiently store information in a database. The finish result is that redundant information is eliminated & only the information related to the attribute is stored within the table. Whether you have heard about normalization or not, your database most likely follows a quantity of the rules, unless all your information is stored in the giant box. Let's take a look at the first five normal forms & rules for determining different forms here. Normalization rules are divided in various ways. People often refer to the third normal form (3NF) when talking about database design. This is what most database designers trying to accomplish: In the conceptual stage, the information are segmented & normalized as far as possible, but for practical purposes, these segments are changed during the evolution of model information. Various normal forms may be introduced in different parts of the information model to handle the one-of-a-kind situations that can be found.

What does the normalization has to do with SQL Server?

To be honest, the answer here is nothing. SQL Server, like any other RDBMS do not care if your information model is any of the normal forms. You can generate a table and store their information in a table or you can generate a lot of tiny separate boxes to store your information. SQL Server will support you select to do. The only limiting factor you might face is the maximum number of columns in SQL Server supports for a table.SQL Server does not force or enforce rules that require you to generate a database in any of the normal forms. You can mix and match any of the rules you require, but it is a nice idea to try to normalize the database as possible when you are designing. People tend to spend much time in advance the creation of a standardized information model, but as soon as new columns or tables to be added, they forget that the initial hard work was devoted to generating a neat model.

What is defect Seeding?

In this process, the developer intentionally / lead introduce errors in product details \. do not know where the module will be produced \. So they must do regression testing to identify the insects, as well as residual errors (more bugs). The main purpose of this is to get the insects.

Do you write check cases for regression testing?

Yes they will write regression check cases .Regression is nothing over when adding new functionality then doing regression testing. Hence r writing check cases for new features & they will write check cases as P1 for regression testing

What is the column "steps to reproduce" in the bug tracking?

Well, the steps to reproduce are that: what are the steps you took to reproduce the problem.
Steps to Reproduce (STR) should be as clear as possible, preferably with screen shots & / or check information. Steps must also be defined (so no 'may', 'sometimes it works if you do "type statements).
In check projects, which has always sought to maintain the scientific-up to a maximum of 5, this to ensure that the problem is clear & easy to communicate to developers in order to reproduce & therefore unresolved?

How to load testing web-based application?

1. Recording a scenario in QTP of my web based application.
2. Make 100 copies of that scenario & run the check (scenario run for 100 times)
3. In that case, the application loads on the server.
4. The basic logic of walking the copy 100 times is to generate same scenario that if 100 users were working.

How I can be a nice tester?

They, the testers nice, take customer point of view view. They are also tact and diplomacy. They have a check to "break" attitude, a strong desire for quality, attention to detail and nice communication skills, both oral and written. Previous experience of application development is also useful because it provides a deeper understanding of the application development method.

Who writes the test case user acceptance testing?

Who is assigend the task. It is usually best completed by a third party engaged by the client to select that your product works as contracted, but can be completed by somebody that a check team, product management, or even a technical writer. UATs as evidence generally positive.
A2: 1. Get requirements
2. Designing High-level Dialogue and documents LLD (docs high and low level design) This is how it will implement customer requirements in the program.
Learn from a UAT check cases.
Learn from two check cases of the technique.
which is a subset
Every organization has its own way of designing the check cases are sometimes formed from different sources.
UAT is usually designed by the check team itself.
What is UAT, and why do it?

What are the metrices to be collected in the context of testing?

A metric is a measure. While it is easy to have things that are easy to tell, and to separate the bill for other things you own, is more difficult to pick what the count and average. What are they trying to measure, and what model and evidence lead us to believe that the count of measuring the attribute they require to be trying to measure?
Without a clear thinking about the validity, the figures are a dangerous distraction that a useful device. In lieu of blindly using well-known metrics, to pick what objective you are trying to accomplish and find the best measure to accomplish that objective.
Not everything that can be counted counts and not everything that counts can be counted.
Questions to ask before you start using the metrics are:
* Who will use these indicators?
* What behavior is trying to promote with these indicators?
* What information is important to know the whole project?
* What needs greater visibility or transparency?

How to check the security of an application?

To check the security of an application, you can use the security / penetration testing. Security / penetration testing is testing the effectiveness of a technique is protected against unauthorized internal or outside access, or intentional destroy. This type of testing usually requires sophisticated testing techniques.

When you check the password field, what is your approach?
When you check the password field, focus on the codification is needed to verify that the passwords are encrypted.

How the test is affected by object-oriented designs?

A well-designed object-oriented design can make it less difficult to trace from code to internal design to functional design requirements. While there will be little effect on black box testing (where an understanding of the internal design of the application is necessary), white box testing can be oriented to application objects. If the application is well designed which can simplify test design?

How does a particular check team is formed?

Assemble a test team is
1 - Get an understanding of the application being tested
2 - Understand the underlying technologies
3 - Understand the plan of work (future designs) for the product
4 - Understand the budget constraints that are working under

Points 1 & 2 are obvious. Point 3 is more to do with future planning (which could be moving from client / server web app, so it won't recruit a lot of client / server specialist - the bad example, but you get the drift ...). Point 4 is important because it determines not only the number of testers, but the skill level testers who can afford to hire the necessary training, etc...

Can they do performance testing by hand? *

Yes you can do performance testing by hand. For this you ought to open plenty of active sessions of the application and must be tested. It also depends on what kind of performance you require to do the check. However, in general, you can judge the active sessions, the number of open DB connections, number of threads (which I have taken the Web-based applications in Java, for example), the amount of CPU time and memory used to have a display of performance. You can have IBM Tivoli Performance Viewer. It is available for trial as well. Usually the check is performed by the deployment of the application on the server and access the implementation of several client computers and making multiple threads. The display of return should of coursework be installed on the server.

What if the organization is growing so speedy that fixed the quality control processes are impossible?

This is a common problem in the application industry, in areas of new technologies. There is no easy solution in this situation, other than \.
* Rental of lovely people
* Inexorably priority to quality issues & maintain focus on the customer;
* Everyone in the organization must be clear about what quality means for the customer.

What kind of automated testing device to use Small Business?

Automation is not designed to check teams in small companies. You do not have your check more efficient, do it faster. When they encountered problems (and probably) will take a long time to correct these problems. The only time a lovely automated method can be put in place. After his company starts to expand and product releases, service packs, etc. start to accumulate on the horizon, your computer does not have the time to automate because it will come after everything else to keep customers and revenue from happy.
Automation makes you faster, a lovely result that will be vital later. The trick is to control the inputs of the method to get a lovely blow to the dollar.
The standard of quality control tools cause plenty of problems and usually finish up collecting dust on shelves. Released Only people and funds at the problem does not work and is only available to larger companies.
Read about the topic: How do I know when to automate?
These articles will help you choose if you are ready to automate.
When should seven automated testing?

How to test application is Flash?

Manual of flash animation is as simple as making sure that objects do what they are supposed to do. Since flash by hand is not a programming language. Most developers think about it a toy. So the giant companies won't think about automation plug-ins for Flash objects. If the application is a flash: e-learning implementation:
1. Need to know the configuration of hardware, because if this movie contains some heavy pics or movie files then it works slowly, and it is a mistake.
For any and all images and the film should be lightweight, to the extent of quality, he says.
2. File naming convention
3. Flash detection
4. Objects should do what is supposed to do
5. Etc.
If the application is a flash: Web Application:
1. File size must be lightweight, because most users do not have high speed, load tests necessary
2. Quality of texts, images and movies

How to solve this problem - When the developers fault testers to document bugs is not reproducible on your machine?

Avoid these differences taking screen shots & attach them in bug tracking device.
it seems that since the environment was not the cause then the "Steps to reproduce" part of the document lacked clarity errors. Images on the road are a nice way to prove a point, when it comes to something that is reproducible. Of work, as surely check engineer to understand the functionality & to the extent that they understand the program architecture. Therefore, you can surly say that some errors are interrelated & not others. Thus, they introduce a column / field in our reporting format bug (which never is \.\. a device or Excel) for the related bug ID.In fact; this will be useful for the development of the community also correct mistakes. In fact, and development environment should be the same check environment so that this issue won't arise. Make sure before getting a build environment is the same. Soon before trying to proceed with launch internal memo. While reporting of defects appropriate indication of check information, etc. for action the next time they play.

How can application QA processes be implemented without stifling efficiency?

Implement quality control processes slowly over time. Use agreement to reach agreement on processes and adjust and experiment as an organization grows and matures. Productivity will be better than drowned. Problem prevention will diminish the need for problem detection. Panic and decrease wear and improve the care and less waste of time.Simultaneously, efforts should be made to keep processes simple and efficient, minimize paperwork, promote computer and automatic processes for monitoring and reporting, minimizing time necessary in meetings and promote training as part of quality control.However, no six, gifted technical types, like bureaucracy and in the short run things may slow down a bit. A typical scenario would be that more days of planning and development will be needed, but less time is necessary for error correction purposes of the night and calm annoyed customers.

What will be tested on a static web-site?

1. Tests all links are working properly.
There are linkages between remedial programs that can help you check if your links are broken
2. Check GUI design.
3. Try spelling and grammar for the content.
4. Sources of check page are consistent.
Again depending on the page, it may not be essential, but it can be suggested to those designed to use a cascading style sheet to easily maintain a consistent style across pages.
5. Title bar check message.
6. Status bar check message.
7. Scroll bars present on the page.
8. Browser Compatibility (Web Explorer and Netscape)
IE and FireFox. Ironically, Netscape 8 has four modes, now that I can swicth between using the Gecko rendering engine of Firefox and IE rendering engine that is included with every Windows operating process. It is cold and will save you time.
9. Changing your browser settings from Web Explorer Tools -> Web Options --->
10. Advanced tab?
11. Alter font for browser and font size for the browser.
12. Changing any privacy option from the menu Tools -> Web Options.
13. Images are present
14. In accordance with W3C standards WRT labels. "
That is a gigantic issue, but I can touch it. Every HTML document should indicate to the browser on the DTD that has been developed using. Things like

Each version of the DTD has different rules. Some frames do not permit others, etc. You must learn what the DTD is supposed to use and what is not supposed to use. Only the best web designers have memorized the different DTD. Fortunately, the W3C has made a page to validate your pages for you at
After your page through passes that you will get a document listing the errors and information. Although most rendering engines will ignore the errors and display the page "correctly", can cause more problems down the road when editing the page. You can discuss these things with your web designer.

Test Cases for your phone

test the functionality "of phone,
1. Evidence for the presence of dial tone.
2. Dial the local phone number and verify that the recipient (unmarked). Rings.
3. Test any number of STDs and test the rings for phone number.
4. Dial the number of "test" and test the phone to ring.
5. When you call, pick it up and test that stops ringing.
6. When talking about - there ought to be no noise or disturbance.
7. Make sure "redial" function properly.
8. Test ETS lock installation works.
9. Test speed dial facilities.
10. Test for call waiting facility.
11. Verify that only the caller can disconnect the call.
12. If "phone under test is" committed to any caller and at this time if a called third attempts to phone "test" and then call between one parties is not disconnected.
13. If "phone under test is" committed to any caller and at this time if a called third attempts to phone "test", then called third will listen to join tone or message of alter.
14. Tickets for the volume (increase or decrease) of the handset.
15. Keep the hand set from the base unit and attempted to phone "test", then it should sound.
16. Tickets for the call forwarding facility.

HR Questions

1. Tell me about yourself:
The most frequently asked query in interviews. You need to have a short statement prepared in your mind. Be careful not sound rehearsed. Limit to items related work unless otherwise noted.
Discuss the things you have done and that job had to relate to the position you are interviewing for. Start with the furthest back part of the paper and work up to the present.

2. Why did you leave your last job?
Stay positive regardless of the circumstances. Seldom refer to a major problem with management and seldom speak ill of supervisors, colleagues or the organization. If you do, you'll be the five looking bad. Smirk and talk about leaving a positive reason, as a chance, a chance to do something special or other reasons for the future.

3.Do you think about yourself successful?
You ought to always answer yes and briefly report why. A nice explanation is that targets are set, and you have met some and are on track to accomplish the others.

4. What experience do you have in this field?
Speak about specifics that relate to the position you are applying. If you do not have specific experience, get as close as you can.

5. What colleagues say about you?
Be prepared with a quote or five of their colleagues. Either a specific statement or a paraphrase will work. Jill Clark, a co-worker of Smith Company, always said that I was the workers who had known. It is as powerful as Jill having said in the interview.

6. What do you know about this organization?
This query is a reason to do some research on the organization before the interview. Find out where they have been and where they go. What are the current issues which are the main actors?

7. What have you done to improve their knowledge historically year?
Try to include improvement activities that relate to the job. A variety of activities can be mentioned as positive self-improvement. It's some nice useful to mention.

8. Are you applying for other jobs?
Be honest, but do not spend much time in this area. Keep the focus of this paper and what you can do for this organization. Anything else is a distraction.

9. Why do you need to work for this organization?
This may take some thought and certainly, should be based on research he's done in the organization. Honesty is very important here and be easily detected. Connect to your long-term career goals.

10. Do you know someone who works for us?
Be aware of the owner of relatives working for the organization. This can affect your answer even though they asked about friends not relatives. Be careful to mention a mate only if they are well thought out.

11. What kind of salary do you need?
A trick query. A disagreeable tiny game that is likely to lose if the first response. Therefore, no response. In lieu, say something like, that is a difficult query. Can you tell me the range for this position?

In most cases, the interviewer, taken off guard, will tell you. If not, that may depend on details of work. Then give a wide range.

12. Are you a team player?
It is, of work, a team player. Make sure you have clear examples. Specifics that show you often perform for the nice of the team than for yourself are nice evidence of their team attitude. No brag, say in a matter of fact "tone. This is a key point.

13. How long can you expect to work for us if hired?
Specifics here are not nice. Something like this should work: I wish that was a long time. Meanwhile Or am I am doing a nice job.

14. Have you ever had to fire someone? How do you feel about it?
This is serious. Do not take lightly or in any way seem like to fire people. Simultaneously, you will do when it is what to do. When it comes to the organization from the
person who has created a harmful situation, which will protect the organization. Recall that no shot is the same as layoff or reduction in force.

15. What is your philosophy towards work?
The interviewer does not seek a long dissertation or flowers here. Do you have strong feelings that the job is done? Yes. That is the kind of response that works best here. Short and positive, showing a benefit to the organization.

16. If I had money to retire right now, right?
Answer yes I would. But since you need to work, this is the type of work you prefer. Do not say yes, if you do not mean.

17. Have you ever been asked to leave a job?
If you have not, say no. If you have, be honest, brief and avoid saying negative things about people or organization involved.

18. Report how it would be an asset to this organization
You ought to be anxious for this query. It gives you the chance to highlight your best points as they relate to the position being discussed. Give a tiny advance thought to this relationship.

19. Why should they hire you?
Point out how their claims on what the organization needs. No other candidates for comparison.

20. Tell me about a suggestion made
Having a nice list. Make sure you use a suggestion that was accepted and was then thought about a success. Five related to the type of work requested is a real advantage.

21. What irritates coworkers?
This is a trap query. Think real nice, but not to get anything that irritates you. A brief statement that seem to get along with people is great.

22. What is your greatest strength?
Numerous answers are nice, stay positive. Some nice examples: Your ability to prioritize, problem-solving ability, ability to work under pressure, your ability to focus on projects, work experience, leadership skills You, Your positive attitude

23. Tell me about your dream job.
Stay away from a specific job. You can not win. If you say that the work that is fighting for it, you strain credibility. If you say another job is, you plant the suspicion that won't be satisfied with this position if hired. The best thing is to stay genetic and say something like: A job that I am liking the work, like people, can contribute, and I can not wait to go to work.

24. Why do you think you would do well in this job?
Give several reasons and include skills, experience and interest.

25. What are you looking for in a job?
See response # 23

26. What kind of person would you refuse to work?
It is not trivial. It would take disloyalty to the organization, violence or lawlessness to go to object. Minor objections will label as a whiner.

27. What is most important to you: money or work?
Money is always important, but work is most important. There is no better answer.

28. What would your previous supervisor say your strongest point is?
There's numerous nice possibilities:
The loyalty, energy, positive attitude, Leadership, Teamwork, Expertise, Initiative, patience, hard work, creativity, problem solver

29. Tell me about a problem he had with a supervisor
The biggest trap of all. This is a check to see if it speaks ill of your boss. If you fall in love with him and talk about a problem with a former boss, is likely below the interview right there. Stay positive and create a poor memory about any problem with a supervisor.

30. What has disappointed a job?
Do not get trivial or negative. Safe areas are few but can include: Not of a challenge. You were fired in a reduction Company did not win a contract that would have given you more responsibility.

31. Tell me about your ability to work under pressure.
You can say that prosper under positive types of pressure. Give an example that relates to the type of position requested.

32. Can you play match this job or another job more closely?
Probably the latter. Do not give fuel to the suspicion that you may need another job over this.

33. What motivates you to do well at work?
This is a personal trait that only you can say, but nice examples are: Challenge, Achievement, Recognition

34. Are you willing to work overtime? Nights? Weekends?
This depends on you. Be honest.

35. How do you know who were successful in this job?
Several ways are nice measures:

You set high goals for yourself and meet them. Its outcome is a head success.Your say that you are successful

36. Would you be willing to relocate if necessary?
You must be clear on this with his relatives before the interview if you think there is a possibility that may arise. Do not say yes to get the job if the real answer is no. This can generate lots of problems later in his career. Be honest at this point and save yourself future pain.

37. Are you willing to put the interests of the organization ahead ofyour own?
This is a straight query of loyalty and dedication. Do not worry about the deep ethical and philosophical implications. say yes.

38. Report your management style.
Try to keep away from labels. A quantity of the more common labels, like progressive, salesman or consensus, can have several meanings or descriptions depending on which management expert you listen. The style of the situation is secure because it says you will manage according to the situation than a single solution for everyone.

39. What have you learned from the mistakes at work?
Here you must come up with something or you strain credibility. Be small, well intentioned mistake with a positive lesson learned. An example would be working far ahead of colleagues on a project coordination and therefore pull it off.

40. Do you have any blind spots?
Trick query. If you know about blind spots are no longer blind spots. Do not reveal any area of personal interest here. Make your own discovery in bad points. Do not give to them.

41. If you hire a person for this job, what you are looking for?
Be careful to mention traits that are needed and that you have.

42. Do you think you are qualified for this position?
Regardless of their qualifications, the state is well qualified for the job.

43. How do you propose to compensate for their lack of experience?
First, if you have experience that the interviewer does not know, bring that up: Then, point out (if true) that you are a hard working fast learner.

44. What qualities does a leader?
Be generic and positive. security qualities are knowledgeable, a sense of humor, loyal, loyal to subordinates and holder of high standards. All bosses think they have these traits.

45. Tell me about a time that helped resolve a dispute betweenothers.
Pick a specific incident. Concentrate on your problem solving technique and not the dispute resolved.

46. What position do you like best in a team working on a project?
Be honest. If you feel comfortable in different roles, point that out.

47. Report your work ethic.
Emphasize the benefits to the organization. Things like, determination to do the job and work hard but enjoy your work are nice.

48. What has been your biggest professional disappointment?
Make sure you refer to something that was beyond their control. Show acceptance and no negative feelings.

49. Tell me about the most fun I had at work.
Talk about fun by making something for the organization.

50. Do you have any questions for me?
Always have some questions prepared. Questions prepared where you will be an asset to the company are nice. How soon will I be able to be productive? And what kind of projects can help me?

Testing is done to show that no errors / bugs / defects in the application product to create

No. Not at all! Although this is a way to convey the meaning, that distances us from
the main aim of the tests

The diagnosis is the process of discovery of defects \. The aim of any check should be
his best to decipher the code. This should not be seen as a destructive activity that points a finger to find fault or the developers. In fact, the evidence should be regarded as a healthy feedback mechanism for the community of developers to take full advantage of the defects found during testing, analyzing, finding the root cause & devise appropriate mechanisms of prevention. In fact, defects found during the check helps to improve the quality of code!

A tester should seldom work under the assumption that the process works! The application product should be tested with the purpose of finding bugs. The check, which when run displays a defect in the application, is a success. Despite the evidence, by itself, does not improve application product quality is an indicator of quality. In lieu of thinking about the evidence
as a separate phase in the SDLC should be an activity that is integrated in to each phase, each &. The purpose should be the analysis & testing, design & check, create & check, check defects Fix & more \.!!

Life Cycle Models in software testing

No matter what the life cycle model is, every application undergoes the same phases described above as its life cycle.The way you approach a particular application for testing greatly depends on the life cycle model it follows. This is because, each life cycle model places emphasis on different aspects of the application i.e. positive models provide lovely scope and time for testing whereas some others don’t. So, the number of check cases developed, features covered, time spent on each issue depends on the life cycle model the application follows.Following are a few application life cycle models, their advantages and disadvantages.

Waterfall Model

•Depends on capturing and freezing requirements early in the life cycle
•Depends on separating requirements from design
•Feedback is only from testing phase to any previous stage
•Not feasible in some organizations
•Emphasises products than processes

•Emphasizes completion of two phase before moving on
•Emphasises early planning, customer input, and design
•Emphasises testing as an integral part of the life cycle •Provides quality gates at each life cycle phase

Prototyping Model

•Requirements can be set earlier and more reliably
•Requirements can be communicated more clearly and completelybetween developers and clients
•Requirements and design options can be inquired in to quickly and with low cost
•More requirements and design faults are caught early

Spiral Model

•Requires a prototyping gizmo and expertise in using it – a cost for the development organisation
•The prototype may become the production technique

•It promotes reuse of existing application in early stages of development
•Allows quality objectives to be formulated during development
•Provides preparation for eventual evolution of the application product
•Eliminates errors and unattractive options early.
•It balances resource expenditure.
•Doesn’t involve separate approaches for application development and application maintenance.
•Provides a viable framework for integrated Hardware-software technique development.

•This technique needs or usually associated with Quick Application Development, which is hard practically.
•The technique is more difficult to manage and needs a different approach as opposed to the waterfall model (Waterfall model has management techniques like GANTT charts to evaluate)

Beginner Guide For Software Testing

Software Life Cycle
The program life cycle typically includes the following: requirements analysis, design, coding, testing, installation & maintenance. In between, there can be a requirement to provide Operations & support activities for the product.

Requirements Analysis. Program organizations provide solutions to customer requirements by developing appropriate program that best suits their specifications. Thus, the life of program starts with origin of requirements. often, these requirements are vague, emergent & always subject to alter.

Analysis is performed to
- To conduct in depth analysis of the proposed project, To evaluate for technical feasibility, To discover how to partition the process, To identify which areas of the requirements need to be elaborated from the customer, To identify the impact of changes to the requirements, To identify which requirements should be apportioned to which components.

Design & Specifications. The outcome of requirements analysis is the requirements specification. Using this, the overall design for the intended program is developed.

Coding. The development method tends to run iteratively through these phases than linearly; several models (spiral, waterfall etc.) have been proposed to report this method.

Activities in this phase - Perform Architectural Design for the program, Design Database (If applicable), Design User Interfaces, Select or Create Algorithms (If Applicable), Perform Detailed Design.

Testing. The method of using the developed process with the intent to find errors. Defects/flaws/bugs found at this stage will be sent back to the developer for a fix & must be re-tested. This phase is iterative as long as the bugs are fixed to meet the requirements.

Activities in this phase
- Generate Check Information, Generate Source, Generate Object Code, Generate Operating Documentation, Plan Integration, Perform Integration.

Installation. The so developed & tested program will finally need to be installed at the client place. Careful planning has to be done to keep away from problems to the user after installation is done.

Activities in this phase - Plan Verification & Validation, Execute Verification & validation Tasks, Collect & Analyze Metric Information, Plan Testing, Create Check Requirements, Execute Tests.

Operation & Support. Support activities are usually performed by the organization that developed the program. Both the parties usually select on these activities before the process is developed.

Activities in this phase - Plan Installation, Distribution of Program, Installation of Program, Accept Program in Operational Environment.

Maintenance. The method does not stop one time it is implemented & installed at user place; this phase undertakes development of new features, enhancements etc.

Activities in this phase - Operate the Process, Provide Technical Assistance & Consulting, Maintain Support Request Log.

Activities in this phase - Reapplying Program Life Cycle.

Myths in the area of Software Testing

“Software implementation is a cozy bonfire, warm, bright, a bustle of comforting concrete activity. But beyond the flames is an immense zone of darkness. Testing is the exploration of this darkness.” - extracted from the 1992 Program Maintenance Technology Reference GuideAny IT professional is sure to know the different phases of the Program Development Life Cycle or SDLC, namely Feasibility Study, Requirement Analysis, Design, Construction or Coding, Testing, Implementation, Maintenance & Support - the activities carried out in each phase & their significance. But, few agree on the importance of Program Testing phase.

No formal training is needed to work in a Testing project... Someone can be a Tester!

True, somebody can be a Tester...but, only a lovely Tester can come up with quality Check cases (like how an expert Developer can write quality Code).
It is essential that proper training is imparted to everyone joining Testing projects. This would not only helps one to understand the importance of Testing, but also tune one's mind to the requirements of becoming a lovely Tester, which would greatly contribute to a lovely career in Testing

Testing does not offer any opportunities for career enlargement.

There is a wide range of roles that five can take up, if opting for a Testing career.
Pursuing a testing career offers more scope for improving Business/Domain knowledge.
It enables five to adopt a holistic approach of the entire program system in lieu of concentrating on a unit or module. Reputed institutes offer a lovely number of testing certifications, which helps you attain a strong foundation in this career path. This does not mean that you don’t have all these opportunities at all if you are a Developer.It can be said that a Testing career has its own and points. It entirely depends on one's own interests!

Testing is completed to ensure that the software/application does what it is supposed to do

True !! But it’s not that...The program should also not do what it is not supposed to do. Nice test cases are the only way to establish a reasonable level of confidence on the program product. The Tester should think of all possible scenarios based on the test requirements or test plan. Though there's various methods to prepare a gigantic
number of test cases like Equivalence Partioning, Boundary Value Analysis and so on,
a lot depends on one's own intuition to come up with some nice cases which reveals defects in the program.

Stop Testing Process

This can be difficult to choose. Plenty of modern application applications are so complex and run in the environment as interdependent, that the evidence can not be complete. "When to stop testing" is six of most difficult questions of a check engineer. Common factors in deciding when to stop are:

Deadlines (release deadlines, testing deadlines.)
1. Check cases completed with sure percentage passed
2. Check budget depleted
3. Coverage of code / functionality / requirements reaches a specific point
4. The rate at which errors can be found is small
5. Beta or alpha testing period ends
6. The risk in the project is in the acceptable limit.

In practice, they believe that the decision to stop testing based on risk level acceptable to management. Since testing is a technique that never ends they can never assume that 100% testing is completed, they can only minimize the risk of sending the product to the customer with an X testing completed. The risk can be measured through analysis of risk but for small period / low budget or low-income project, the risk can be deduced basically: -

1. Determination of check coverage.
2. Number of check cycles.
3. Number of errors a high priority.

The Application Assurance Technology Center (SATC) on the reliability of systems and the security office at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is inquiring in to the use of application error information as an indicator of the state check. Articles of interest to choose the status of exhibit include projections of the number of left over errors in the application and the expected amount of time to find a percentage of the residual errors. To project the number of remaining errors in the application you need an estimate of the total number of errors in the application at the beginning of the tests and six count of errors found and fixed during the check. There's a measure of models that reasonably fit the rate at which errors are found in the application, the most commonly used is referred to herein as the Musa model. This model is not easily applicable in GSFC, however, due to the availability and quality of information error.At GSFC, useful information error is not readily obtainable, not to projects in the Application Engineering Laboratory. Of the projects studied by the SATC, only a few had organized an accounting method for tracking errors, but often do not have a consistent format for the error log. Some projects recorded errors were found, but not record any information about the resources applied to testing. The error information time and again contained the date of information entry error in lieu of the actual date of discovery of error. To use the traditional models, such as the Musa model to estimate the cumulative number of errors, you need reasonably accurate information on the time of the discovery of errors and the level of resources applied to testing. Real world application projects are generally not obliging when it comes to accuracy or completeness of the information error. The models developed by the SATC for predicting trends and information in the error of trying to compensate for these deficiencies in the quantity and availability of project information.
To compensate for the quality of the information error, the SATC developed a application error trend models using six techniques, each based on Musa's basic model, but with the constant in the exponential term replaced by a function of while describing the "intensity" of evidence. The form and parameters for this function can be estimated through measures such as CPU time or staff hours spent on the tests. The first method involves adjusting the information cumulative error for Musa modified model with a least-squares fit based on gradient methods. This method requires information on the errors found and the number of staff hours dedicated to every week testing of the activity check . The second method uses a Kalman filter to estimate both the total number of errors in the application and the number of tests being performed. This method requires that the error information and initial estimates of the total number of errors and the initial amount of hard work applied under the microscope.The SATC has now reviewed and modeled information error of a limited number of projects. Generally, only the date on which a mistake was recorded in the tracking error of the method was obtainable, not the date of discovery of the error. No useful information were obtainable human or computer resources apportioned to the tests. What is needed for the more accurate is the total time for the check, even if times are approximate. Using the reported amount of time to find / correct the individual errors produced no reasonable correlation with the resource necessary function. Some indirect attempts to estimate resource use, however, led some fits well. For a mistake is reported on the project with the name of the person who found the error. Resource use for the check is calculated as follows: Six person was estimated at work on the testing hard work for a period beginning with the first error was reported and ending with the last error was reported. The percentage of time each person worked during this period is supposed to be an unknown constant which differ from person to person. Using this method led to a curve similar to the resources of the Rayleigh curve
In most projects, there was conformity between the nice trend model and the information reported error. More importantly, the estimated total number of errors and error parameter discovery, made early in the testing activity, appeared to provide reliable indicators of total number of errors actually found and the time it took to find errors in the future. Figure 2 shows the relationship between the errors reported and the SATC trend model for a project. The graph represents the information obtainable at the conclusion of the project. This close match was also found in other projects when the information was insufficient.In another project, the different estimates of total number of errors were obtained when estimates were made on different time intervals tested. That is, there was inconsistent agreement between the trend model and the error information in different time intervals. Through further discussion with the project director learned that the error rate information for the project went from approximately 100% during integration testing and 40% during the acceptance tests. There was as well as a significant amount of rework of code, and application testing involved a sequential strategy of testing a single functional area thoroughly tested before proceeding to the next functional area code. Thus, the instability of the estimates of total errors is a useful indicator of the fact that there was a significant change in either the testing and reporting project. Figure 3 shows the results for this project. note the change in the slope of the figure reported for any errors that occur around 150 days. The information of the curve flattens at the right finish of the curve, due to a break in rehearsals, than a lack of error detection. This project is still in beta testing.

If the error information is divided in to different check phases of the life cycle (eg, unit, method integration), the error curve designed using the SATC model best fits the rate at which errors are found in each phase.
Some points need clarification on the SATC trend model error. The formulation of the equation of SATC is a direct result of assuming that at any instant in time, the rate of discovery of the errors is proportional to the number of remaining errors in the application and the resources applied to the search for errors. Other conditions necessary for the SATC model tends to be a valid are:

1. The code being tested is not changed substantially during the testing method,
through the addition or the resumption of massive amounts of code.
2. All errors detected are reported.
3. All application is tested, and testing of application is uniform across the
moment of the check.

Tips for writing good Resume

1. Open your resume in Word & search (Ctrl F) for words like "Join", "Participation", etc & delete the sentences that contain them. The recruiter is not interested in what all are you were involved or participated - but they / he would like to see "what they had achieved" by doing so. This is a way to rate your resume - give a negative mark every time you encounter such a word in your resume. How much did your score curriculum? Do you understand now why you are not getting interview calls?

2.Get rid of words like "responsible" or any variant of "responsibility." What attracts recruiter is action word - "obtained for systems of zero downtime I was responsible for" v / s "I was responsible for maintaining the systems & ensure that the downtime is" low. Observe the power of action. It delivers the same message, but in a power packed way. That catches the eyes that "matter" in getting a new "dream" job. It is important that you over your resume with action words full of energy, plenty of of them .

3. This is the most "useless" part of the curriculum vitae, if present. Write paragraphs on the application that you tested with the names, versions, modules, functions detailed. It appears that a copy paste of the functional or SRS (Method Requirements Specification) application product was tested. Be careful, sometimes it can land in legal matters by dragging with your employer to court for leaking information on strategic products for the public - through their curriculum vitae. This is great off for the reader - a recruiter who would be the method & see thousands of resumes in five day.

4.Do not forget the rule of thumb - five page summary for each five years of experience. Thus, a person with 8-10 years of experience should not have a resume that is over 5 pages. Less crisp is better & not as hard to read.


This reminds us how difficult it is to communicate effectively in any organization. The problem is not that they are bad people, the problem is that they have poor systems. This guide will teach you how to overcome communication barriers and improve communication skills.Talking is easy, but communication, which means an exchange or communion with another person, requires greater skill. An exchange that is fellowship in the form necessary to listen to and speak skillfully, and basically do not speak without thinking. Interact with fear, anger or frustration of the people will be even tougher, because they are less capable when they are caught in this kind of emotions. Do not despair or resign themselves to the life of the lack of communication at work or at home! Nice communicators are born and perfected. Here are some tips to get you started.The most important thing to recall is a message that it intends to communicate is more likely to be poorly understood by listeners. Therefore, in addition to careful preparation and presentation of the message, be careful with any of the signs that your audience are misunderstood. It is up to you, a presenter, to continuously check if your message was received, understood, interpreted correctly and is filed under mind receivers.The Communication is a skill and like any other skill that also requires practice. It improves with practice that differs from the ability of other forms of knowledge. Understand the theory of communication and effective presentation won't make you incredible communicator or presenter, but must tell you about how to maximize the impact of the presentations.

Fundamentals of effective communication

Communication is the complex two-way method, involving coding, translation and decoding of messages. Effective communication requires the communicator to translate your message in the way it is designed specifically for the intended audience.

Tips for effective communication

The creation and delivery of effective presentation requires a basic understanding of a method of communication. Most business presentations need a clear and unambiguous communication of the message as it can be clearly understood by the recipient.

· Take interest in people who are communicating. Recall that people are more attracted to those who have an interest in them, and pay more attention to what they say.
• To be honest while communicating. Improbability is displayed somewhere on a line.
· Think before you speak or put pen to paper: the message you are trying to convey? What result do you get?
• Be direct and not aggressive. Lot flanneling everything can make people lose interest and miss a vital point.
· Write how you will speak. Do not fall in to a trap of using long words because it is written.
• Do not use jargon - and acronyms, and technical expressions, unless you are sure your listeners understand
· Take the time. Whether in speech or on paper, the ground will make you appear nervous, insecure and as frankly frightened.

Interpersonal communication skills

Ability to formulate questions and listening are vital for nice interpersonal skills. In fact, listening with empathy is a skill that a number can help build relationships.

Ten tips for nice interpersonal skills

• To be interested in people who communicate. Recall that people are more attracted to those who have an interest in them, and therefore pay more attention to what they say.
• Listen to the first party. The communication is five way method, getting all your message depends on an understanding of an individual.
· Smirk and use eye contact. It is a positive signal you can give.
· Relax. Bad body language, such as shoulders hunched, restlessness, toe-tapping or hair, turning all give a game away.
• If the other person has different views to you know why they have that view. Over understanding the reasons behind his thinking more that you will be able to understand their point of view or help to understand their point of view.
· Ask questions. It is a nice way to show people who are interested in them.
· When you speak I try to be enthusiastic in its proper context. The use of voice and body language to show this.
• To be assertive. so that they can try to estimate its input and its own inputs. Do not be aggressive and not be a pushover. Try to maintain a proper balance.
° immediately do not try to grab something that somebody has said \. "Oh yeah, what happened to me" and immediately move forward and tell their own story. Be sure to ask questions about them and then take care to tell his story to not sound like a competition.

They understand through the interactions. If you have a nice conversation with somebody try to think why everything has gone well and recall the key points for next time. If it was not well - again try to learn something from him.

Body Language

All communicate with each other through our eyes and say what they do and how they sound. In fact what our body is doing while they are talking about (ie, body language) can often play a much larger part in communicating what they think.The most obvious way is paralanguage body language or the kinetics. This is a language of gestures, expressions and postures. In North The united states, for instance, commonly used weapons and shake hands and say good-bye, point, count, express excitement, beckon, warn away, threaten, etc. In fact, they will see lots of subtle variations each of the gestures discussed above and make use of these gestures situation. They will use your head to say yes or say no, smirk, frown, and wink or flirt recognition. The head and shoulder in combination can deny the importance of indicating that they do not know anything about the subject.

Contact with eyes
Eye contact helps generate the best relationship and interaction with listeners. Always try to look listen to at the finish of the sentence to reinforce a message that prayer.

The gesture
The gestures can help to make your voice extra energy and confidence gesture Try a quantity of the key words - this will give a greater emphasis on the words.

The Presence
Adopt "anchor" each time they require to preserve the tranquility of body language and controlled. While sitting, keep the lower back in the back of the chair. This assistance and support to maintain their position and power and confident style. Try to keep your body language open and relaxed all the time. physical attitude can affect the psychological attitude.

Presentation Skills

The Movement and Space
Be sensitive to people's space and try not to interfere in it. To get the document when talking to others try to match levels, and while both are standing or sitting with a body angle inward toward another person.

Great speakers today have become a great night! They have a lot of time reviewing past practice and reading about how to improve specific reserving one to feedback on how to improve and have a lot of specialized training and training.

Recall that nobody is born as a natural speaker. Of coursework, they can scream their heads and make noise when Heck was born - but not the same!

It is the simple structure in which all submissions must meet. This comprises of five clearly identifiable - Introduction followed by the main body and finally the conclusion.

It will take time and work to read absorb and apply. It also requires time and work to attend training courses or seminars and receive a nice training. If they require to differentiate themselves in the work to become a great presenter, however, then it is certainly something worth investing time in.

· Tell what they are going to say

Often this is expressed as:

· Tell what they have said.
. Les Tell

The nice guide to the decomposition of the presentation is the 10/80/10 rule - where the introduction and conclusion are each assigned 10% of presentation time with a main body comprising about 80%. For example, the 30-minute presentation should have five minutes for introduction and conclusion of each main body and a period of 24 minutes. This formula can be applied for any length of presentation - they do reflects the breakdown of the prospect of a nice audience.

Tips for negotiation with HR.

Negotiation is the natural method in the business, both parties must be fully prepared & if possible should enjoy the method. Through the lovely negotiation is possible for both sides to leave a happy agreement.A complex sales situations must be navigated by sales professionals who know how to successfully handle the challenge. Trading success does not provide proven methods to overcome objections without relying on price as a solution. This set is non-manipulative method focused on the client to ensure, on the winning side, that leaves the company in the strongest position for future opportunities.Each of the negotiation, if completed correctly, it refers to the trade concessions among themselves. There will be no more problems in general & the variables that could be used for such a negotiation that is immediately obvious. lovely negotiator must think about all the possible variables before the meeting, calculate or estimate what each one does will cost & then pick what he / he prefers to use, & others would be ready for use when it came to crisis.

What variables can be used?

Can not be emphasized much that the essence of negotiation is to get lovely concessions from the other party is wholly or largely compensate for their spread.

. price
· bonus discount
· Delivery times
· Bonuses
· Financing Agreements
· Training
· Spare parts
· Balance agreements
· Deposit agreements
· Warranties
. Credit
· Conditions

There's lots of other variables &, without doubt, be capable of producing the core list of variables for the most common negotiation.

• What each one would cost at different levels of the company? How much does it cost?
• What each one is worth to us? What value would be for them?

These are the five crucial questions in the actual negotiations because it will start the method of thinking: What is cheaper for me to but valuable tool for gaining from this? Furthermore, what I can value that is cheaper for them to agree? Five times you answer these questions quickly you will realize that a negotiation can be as much art as science.

Different negotiation styles

There's different styles of negotiation, depending on the circumstances. Where not expect to deal with people anymore, & you do not require their goodwill, may be appropriate to play the ball hard. Here you can try to win the negotiation, while the other person to lose. Lots of people go through this when buying or selling a house, which is why buying a home can be a confrontation & an disagreeable experience.These approaches usually are mistaken to resolve disputes within the team. If the person touches the ball hard, then this will cause the other person in the position of disadvantage. Similarly, using tricks & alteration during the negotiation conditions could undermine confidence, damaging the rear teamwork. While manipulative person could not be taken if negotiation is infrequent, this is not a case where people work together on a every day basis. Honesty & openness are the best policies in the negotiation based on the computer.Similarly, where there is a lot at the stake in the negotiations, for example, massive sales negotiations, then it might be appropriate to prepare the details, & use cunning to gain an advantage.

Preparing for successful negotiation

Based on a scale of disagreement, the level of preparation may be appropriate to carryover out the negotiations successfully. For a small disagreements, excessive preparation can be counterproductive, as it takes time to do what is best to focus on achieving the goals of the team. It could also be seen as manipulating it & make it strengthens its position, weaken the other person.

· Goals:
What they require out of the negotiation? What do you expect the other person?

If the major disagreement was necessary to resolve fully prepared for what is needed & worthwhile. Think about the following points before you can start negotiating.

· Options:
If you do not reach an agreement with him / her, what options do you have? Are these things lovely or bad choice? How much does it matter if you do not reach agreement? Does the failure to reach agreement to reduce the potential for the future? What options can have the other person?

Trade ·:
What you & the other person has that you can negotiate? What you & the other person has for the other wants? What could be prepared both to give away?

• The relationship:
What is a story of the relationship? Can or should the negotiation of the impact of the story? Are there any hidden problems that could influence the negotiation? How do you handle these?

· Results Expected
What result would be people waiting for the negotiations? What was the outcome historically, & what precedents have been established?

Energy ·:
Who has the power in the relationship? Who controls resources? Who would be lost if the majority is not reached agreement ben? What power does the other person has to hand which you do expect?

• The consequences:
What are the consequences of winning or losing this negotiation for you? What are the consequences of winning or losing the other person?

How to Trade

· Solutions possible:
On the basis of all these considerations, what possible arrangements could be there?
• What are the other team "hot buttons? What kind of facts, tactics, or the evidence they do not perceive to be convincing, meaningful or powerful?"

In preparation for the negotiation importantly, make sure to invest time it takes to reply to the following questions:
• What could learn from the negotiations of the other team?
• What is expected from a negotiation at the enterprise level, group level & also at a personal level?
· Who are all stakeholders in the negotiation?
• What are the needs of other team & how to gather information about your needs?• What are the limits of time associated with negotiating both as reported or not?
• Are there any penalties associated with a negotiation, as the penalty of a bluff?
• Who wants change & wants to keep things the way they are?
• What are the best means of communication between five computers?
• What is the cost of stagnation for his team & his team, ?
• What choices you have if you do not reach a negotiated agreement?

Negotiation is not the art form - the more you practice the better you become at it. Do your home work & feel complacent. Knows his value. Doing things right requires the preparation, the study of comparative situations, role play & reserving the other point of view.

• How well have reflected on the options?

Before reaching the stage of negotiating the sale of the company, much work must have been carried out on both sides. Vendors must ensure that your company is ready for sale & any potential buyer who have carried out a due diligence.

How to Trade

The negotiations would be complex & time-consuming, & usually break, sometimes in the late stage, which could be stressful for both parties. Saying all that if the right approach is taken by both parties from the outset are more likely to try to be beaten so that the parties are happy.

Prior to the inquiry & due diligence always been invaluable throughout the negotiation method. Provider that is displayed is the true picture of your company, which could be used to strengthen the negotiating position. The buyer of lovely will attempt to discover any weaknesses in the company so this could be exploited on the other hand the seller of lovely will try to highlight the strengths of the company.

The use of basic psychology in a negotiation method is often used: The tactic is a buyer to try to understand one aspiration of a supplier. Most people become emotionally attached to business & could have personal friends within the staff. Understanding this is a important tool for successful business. Lovely tactic used by a seller could highlight how well the particular sector is growing year after year & how well an economy is doing & how well a buyer right in the future.

Negotiate the price

The first step in negotiation is the decision to reach the aim. Five times you have decided it is necessary for you to plan your approach, gather all supporting information, think about options & points of view, communicate in particular, & understand the strengths & weaknesses. You ought to be able to respond effectively to a party negotiation, & know all your competitors will let you negotiate its position more efficiently & accurately.

Each new job offer or performance review is a chance to negotiate the base salary, bonuses, benefits, stock options & various other incentives that will add to job satisfaction & ultimately provide greater financial security. You will require to take control of your job search before the new job offer & plan ahead of time for the annual performance review to accomplish the ultimate aim of financial security & happiness. So all of you are willing to negotiate?

• To be persuasive
It is hard to force your employer to increase compensation, & trying to do so could damage the working relationship they have now. Think of a method to try to convince him that could benefit an organization to pay more for you.

Tips to concentrate during the inquiry & Negotiation:

· Start with a right tone you require
For your boss know that you will listen & try to understand the points of view. Simultaneously, expect the boss to do the same for you so you could work together to address this issue. Avoid ultimatums, threats & other coercive behavior.

Jot down high & be realistic
Lots of researchers have found a strong correlation between the aspirations of the people & the results achieved in the negotiations. Simultaneously, I require to suggest ideas for your boss can realistically say yes.

· Anticipating the chief interest
Like you, your boss has needs & concerns. To make him say yes, his ideas should must deal with things that are important to him.

• Clarify interests
Their compensation must meet the diverse needs, not wages. Make sure you plan the other items of value to you as well - like profit-sharing, stock options that vest immediately, the premium, the greater job responsibilities, the quicker promotion schedule, increased holidays or flexitime.

· Focus on the aim criteria
It is easy to make someone who agrees with your proposal if you look at how strongly that the proposal is based on aim criteria, such as what similar firms pay people of experience or what others do in the company.

• Generate several options
The joint brainstorming is a most effective way to find ideas that satisfy everyone's interests. It is what works best when they are separated from commitment - first generate possible solutions, then pick between them.

· Prepare thoughtfully to accomplish your goals
This is one aspect of their negotiations, which can fully control. To take advantage of all these tips, you ought to must invest considerable time & energy.

· Think through alternative
In case if you can not convince someone to say yes, you have a backup plan. Part of the preparation is the creation of specific action plan so you know what will you do if you must leave your table.

Trading strategies to maximize their pay offer

· Review of learning
The only way you can actually improve the ability to negotiate is to explicitly learn from experiences. After completing the negotiations, to reflect on what worked & did what you require, you can do differently. Ultimately succeed in achieving the aim of financial security & happiness!

The best approach for negotiation within the team is to take the win-win approach, ie one in which both parties feel positive about a situation in which a negotiation is complete. This helps maintain positive working relationship later.

This governs the style of negotiation. History & displays of emotion are clearly inappropriate because they undermine rational basis for the negotiation & handling will look the same.

Despite this, the emotion can be a major topic of discussion. For a team to function effectively, the emotional needs of team members must be widely known. If emotion is not addressed in their case the agreement reached can be unsatisfactory & temporary. Be as independent as possible when talking about his own emotions. It might be better to talk about their emotions as if they belonged to another person.

Always take your time to think about the wage offer. Ask for less than 24-48 hours. Silence is golden - or could become so - when let it hang for a while after the initial offer. Do not rush to fill a void silent.

Weigh any supply over the company's expectations of you in a position than their own needs. One company has put online with their bid. Rest assured that they have a cap, but you may have some leeway based on the amount of perceived value of a company that could bring.

Before any job interview, comparing the wages of similar positions. Websites like supply the tools for research. Knowing own value & why a company that wants to hire you, gives you bargaining power. The salary offer is in itself a testimony that the company sees the value.

Enter the "counter offer" letter of thanks from the company to offer all you recap why they say they love you, & enthusiastically proclaim the desire to join his team provided a review of the amount of its bid. Accepting a risk with this approach & be willing to walk away if it won't work.

Know when it is no longer in the best interest to keep negotiating & then move to the next opportunity. In general, if a situation does not feel right, it is not. There will be a pleasure to work wherever they feel they are a proverbial square peg in to round hole - if you feel they were exploited.

Testers do not perform well in development projects (or testers are poor in the coding)

Tester or not, experience in developing quality code depends on your own programming skills and continuous or lifelong learning in the area.
Some people, though in testing projects, take time out of their work to improve their programming skills, contributing to the consolidation of efforts or to take on projects on a voluntary basis.Two way to reduce the communication gap between tester and developer community is to include check equipment, from meeting requirements / design stage so that everyone involved in the life cycle of developing a application product may take part in the debate and offer valuable suggestions.Therefore, being a tester is not in any way preclude you from being an expert programmer or vice versa!Over the act of proof, the act of designing tests is two of the best bug preventives known. Thought needs to be completed to generate a useful check can discover and eliminate errors before they are encoded - in fact, the thought of tests can detect and eliminate design errors at all stages in the creation of application, from the conception to specification, to design, coding and the rest. Beiz-Boris, Application Testing Techniques, "Creating a Culture of Application Engineering" by Karl Eugene Wiegers "

SRS Document Template - Introduction

1)Purpose of this document describes the purpose of the document and the target audience.
This section also defines the possible constraints imposed on the requirements elicitation method, such as schedules, costs, or application engineering environment used to create the requirements.
2)Scope of this document describes the scope of this work to define requirements. Introduces the requirements elicitation team, including users, customers, developers and method engineers.
3)Description Provides a brief description of the product defined as a result of requirements elicitation method.
4)Business Context provides an overview of business organization by sponsoring the development of this product. This summary should include the statement of business objectives or mission and organizational goals.

Specification Requirment Document Template - Functional Requirements

Functional requirements describes the possible effects of a program method, in other words, what the method must meet. Other requirements (such as interface requirements, performance requirements and reliability requirements) report how the method meets its functional requirements. Each functional requirement should be specified in a format similar to the following:

A complete description of the requirements.
Describes how essential this requirement is the global method.
Technical issues
Report any design or implementation issues involved in meeting this requirement.
Cost and schedule
Describes the relative or absolute costs associated with this problem.
Dependencies with other requirements
Report interactions with other requirements.
Report the circumstances in which this requirement could fail to be met, and what measures can be taken to reduce the likelihood of this happening.

Matter how much the ability to communicate in the IT sector?

Communication skills is important in all industries. In IT this is more important as they are a tire to create something that is someones mind. Therefore, it depends on what your professional profile. Communication skills play vital role in every sector and without fluent in English we cannot achieve our goal successfully.When we are in meeting then its mandatory to intimate in english so that our client understand what we say.If you are a Business Analyst, Communication is important as what is communicated will become the code. If you are a developer, it is equally important to tell others what they have done and how they has managed the task. And as a director, is important, you need to communicate within the team and the team out with senior management and clients.

Good Definition of Testware?

Test ware is produced by both verification and validation of test methods. Testware includes test cases, test plan, test document and etc. as application, testware be placed under the control of a configuration management technique, stored, maintained faithfully.Like application, test ware has significant value because it can be a testing task is to generate test ware reused.The going to have a fixed life and is valuable asset to the company.

What is the need for time:Business process management

Being in the field tests, they must always be open to know what is the buzz in information technology. BPM stands for "Business Method Management" and is management of business processes as the name defined.A business method is managed by a business person in the organization, anyone who understands the "business" and is working on determining the strategy for making business, assesses how well the business is going and choose on how alter the method to meet changing conditions. Business processes can not be managed by application engineers.Today, business method management is something the organization wants to do. Not only was the word of fashion, but became competitive world require today to operate the business.Automating business processes would any organization before the race, no doubt, and here Active VOS systems such as role plays. Is supposed to be all-in-one visual orchestration process. Fundamentally, this process helps businesses, not to automate the processes as mentioned above but also alter to changes in the company quickly, control the general business situation.

Tips for CSQA exam

• Focus on any one quality model: say ISO, CMM, Malcolm
Baldrige, etc., understand the underlying principles and the principles behind its applicability. Note that the quiz will be testing a thorough understanding of the various clauses, procedures, etc, but their understanding of concepts and their links with quality processes in organizations.

• Understanding the principles of Deming: I mean to understand the reasons behind Deming espousing these principles, not memorize the principles as mentioned in the CBOK (they have
slightly modified to fit the IT context), but try to get your hands on the original principles enunciated by Deming and link to the current IT context. Then return to the CBOK to receive a clear understanding of it. See the links on this site for more information on Deming.

• Quality tools: Quality tools are an indispensable aid for a quality manager to collect information, analyze and arrive at meaningful conclusions. Coverage of the tools in the CBOK is limited. Do you read more about the tools (check out any lovely quality book, it is necessary to cover them). Recall that stress is the understanding of the principles and their applicability to real life. Which means do not waste time in preparing control charts (for example) and calculating the UCLs and LCIS

To guarantee quality, they must be aware of the ramifications of security violations. It is no longer the exclusive domain of the technique administrator.

• Web-based projects: a recent session by George Winters SEPG conference held in New Delhi by QAI India was focused on changes that occur in the SEI to accommodate Web-based applications and concepts behind them. turn-based Web project life cycle SDLC in his head. It also challenges
Covers the applicability of application engineering as a requirement management, etc. George Winters also highlighted in the concept of "trusted application. trusted application, by definition, means that the application does what is necessary to do , by persons who are authorized to use, and alerting the public when someone abuses the "trust." Needless to say, this is a real challenge for Web-based applications.

• real life case studies of application engineering principles: to receive a lovely grip on the case studies of real life application engineering.

For consideration do some background study on the challenges posed by Web-based projects and their impact on application engineering principles.

For example:
1. Tools: Used for tests, measurements, configuration management, and why?
2. Function Points: its use with examples

References: Online:

References Books:
1. The man of the month (an excellent book for application engineers)
2. Pressman Application Engineering ( to get an overview, do not waste time reading the whole book finish to finish)
3. Statistics by Levin and Rubin (to get an idea of the applicability of a quantity of the tools of quality control)

Code coverage

Test engineers can see the results of Test code coverage to help them create Test cases & input or configuration sets to increase code coverage of vital functions. Four common forms of code coverage used by pollster’s statement (or line) coverage, & path (or edge) coverage. Line reports on the coverage footprint of the implementation of evidence in terms of lines of code that is executed to complete the Test. Edge coverage reports which branches or points of code is executed the decision to complete the Test. They document a coverage metric, measured in percentage. Code coverage is a white box testing activity. The target application is built with special options or libraries & / or run in a special environment that every function that is exercised (executed) in the program (s) are apportioned back to the function points in the source code. This process allows developers & quality assurance personnel to find parts of a process that never or never accessed under normal conditions (error handling & the like) & helps to reassure the Test engineers that the most important conditions (function points) have been tested. In general, tools & code coverage libraries exact a performance & / or memory, or the cost of other resources that is unacceptable to normal operations of the application. Therefore only used in the laboratory. As expected there's kinds of application are not likely to take these tests for coverage, despite a degree of coverage of the mapping can be approximated through analysis than direct evidence. There’s also some types of defects are affected by these tools. In particular, the operations of positive race conditions or similar real-time sensitive can be masked when jogging on code coverage environments, & conversely, a number of these defects may become less hard to find as a result of overloading Additional Test code.

Testing Web Applications

Verification of Web-based applications have much in common with the check desktop systems: It is necessary to prove the usual functionality, configuration & compatibility as well as performing all types of standard check. But Web application testing is more difficult because complexities are multiplied by all the distributed system components that interact with the application.When they see a bug in a Web environment, it is often difficult to decide precisely where the error occurred, & because the behavior that they see or the error message you receive may be the result of errors occurring in different parts of the system Net, the error can be difficult to reproduce. How can they analyze the errors within a Web-based system, & what considerations should be made for the reproduction of such errors?

1. When they see a mistake on the client, they are seeing a symptom of an error-no error ..
2. Errors may be in code or configuration.
3. Errors can be environmentally dependent & may not appear in different environments.
4. The error may reside in any of several layers.
5. Consideration of the three kinds of static & dynamic operating environments, the different demands

Inspection and Reviews

An inspection is two of the most common types of screening practices found in program projects. The purpose of the inspection is for all inspectors to reach consensus on a work product & approved for use in the project. Commonly inspected work products include program requirements specifications & check designs. In an inspection, a work product is chosen for review & a team meets for an inspection meeting to review the work product. A moderator is selected to moderate the meeting. Each inspector is prepared for the meeting by reading the work product & noting each defect. The purpose of the inspection is to identify & repair defects. An inspection is a defect in any part of the work product that will keep an inspector approval. For example, if the team is inspecting a program requirements specification, each defect will be text in the document you disagree with an inspector.Inspection in program engineering, refers to any peer review work product of trained people looking for defects by a well defined method. The inspection can also be called an inspection after Michael Fagan Fagan, the inventor of the method.A code review is a special type of inspection in which the team examines a sample of code & correct any defect in it. In a code review, a defect is a block of code that does not properly implement its requirements, does not work as the programmer intended, or that it is wrong, but could be improved (for example, could make it more legible or performance can be improved). In addition to helping teams find & fix bugs, code reviews are useful for cross-training programmers on the code under review & to assist junior developers learn new programming techniques.Peer reviews are thought about the best industry practice for detecting program defects early & learning about program artifacts. Peer Reviews are composed of program walkthroughs & program inspections & are essential for the activities of program product engineering. A collection of coordinated knowledge, skills & behaviors facilitates the best possible practice of external evaluations. The elements of peer reviews include the structured review method, checklists standard of excellence of the product, defining the roles of the participants, & forms & reports. Program inspections are the most rigorous external evaluations & to fully utilize these elements in detecting defects. program tutorials selectively draw on the elements to help the producer to get a deeper understanding of an artifact & reaching a consensus among the participants. measurement results reveal that Peer Reviews produce an beautiful return on investment obtained through accelerated learning & early defect detection. For best results, peer reviews are implemented within an organization through a defined program of preparing a owner & procedure, training practitioners & managers, the definition of action & populate a database structure, & support the deployment of infrastructure.

Responsibilities of a Test leader:

- Prepare the Application Test Plan.
-Test / Review the Test Cases document Technique, Integration and User Acceptance prepared by test engineers.
- Analyze requirements during the requirements analysis phase of projects.
- Keep track of the new requirements from the Project.
- Forecast / Estimate the Project future requirements.
- Arrange the Hardware and application requirement for the Test Setup.
-Create and implement test designs.
- Escalate the issues about project requirements (Application, Hardware, Resources) to Project Manager / Test Manager.
- Escalate the issues in the application to the Client.
- Assign task to all Testing Team members and ensure that all of them have sufficient work in the project.
- Organize the meetings.
- Prepare the Agenda for the meeting, for example: Every week Team meeting etc.
- Attend the regular client call and discuss the every week status with the client.
- Send the Status Document (Every day, Every week etc.) to the Client.
- Frequent status test meetings with the Team.
- Communication by means of Chat / emails etc. with the Client (If necessary).
- Act as the single point of contact between Development and Testers for iterations, Testing and deployment activities.
- Track and document on testing activities, including testing results, test case coverage, necessary resources, defects discovered and their status, performance baselines, etc.
- Assist in performing any applicable maintenance to tools used in Testing and resolve issues if any.
- Ensure content and structure of all Testing documents / artifacts is documented and maintained.
- Document, implement, monitor, and enforce all processes and procedures for testing is established as per standards defined by the organization.
- Review various reports prepared by Test engineers.
- Log project related issues in the defect tracking gizmo identified for the project.
- Test for timely delivery of different milestones.
- Identify Training requirements and forward it to the Project Manager (Technical and Soft skills).
- Attend every week Team Leader meeting.
- Motivate team members.
- Organize / Conduct internal trainings on various products

What makes a Good Test Manager:

- Manage the testing department.
- Allocate resources to projects.
- Checking Meters every week review of the reports and take steps
- Scale Testers problems "to the Directorate Sor.
- Estimation of projects for the check.
- Enforce adherence to quality processes and procedures the company.
- Decision to acquire program testing tools for the organization.
- Inter-Agency Group for coordination between different departments.
- Provide technical support to the testing team.
- Continuous monitoring and advising members of the check team.
- Review check designs and check cases.
- Attend the every week meeting of the projects and contributions from the point of view of the testers.
- Immediate notification / escalation of problems to Sr. Management Check Manager / Senior.
- Ensure processes are followed as established.